INDUSTRIAL CULTURE

  1. ATTITUDE TO RESOURCES

It is essential how resources are used, i.e., by increase or improvement in the quality of the existing resources. „The use of money is all the advantage there is in having money“ (Franklin, 1736)[1] All-time in industrial societies must be consumed, marketed and put to use. 

  1. ATTITUDE TO ASSETS

Assets are not created to be treasured, but to be further invested. Aquisition economy. Work results are viewed differently in societies evaluating the results compared to those focused on work processes and the relevant mutual relationships. 

I was stunned by Saturday's sales of unnecessary things. Nicely dressed and well-mannered hosts, professors, expose them right in front of their houses and sell them for nothing, or simply donate them to charity. This is not about profit or even philanthropy, but the respect for the product of the former laborer like for God: so that it would not be wasted, but used and living. It's amazing that no such custom exists in Russia, which is not so rich in goods, where valuable commodities and products are thrown away or broken. People act like aristocrats who are ashamed of trading and selling. In essence, this behavior is disrespectful of the labor. In America, rich people see nothing degrading in such a custom. On the contrary, according to their work ethic, it would be immoral and shameful to surrender to nothingness the fruits of the labor of their forefathers or companions, products which could still serve their fellows.“ (Gacev, 2011)[2]

  1. PRODUCTION OF GOODS

     Production is acquisitive. Struggle for-profit free from the limits set by needs (Sombart, 1902).

  1. WORK ETHICS

      Ethics is connected to problem solving, rationality, punctuality, impersonality, discipline.

  1. WORK DISCIPLINE

       Large-scale machine-powered industry. Hours and tasks must not fluctuate with the weather. The regularity of labor patterns. Attention to time in labor depends upon the need for the synchronization of job. Irregular labor rhythms were institutionalized. A clear demarcation between „work" and „life" (Friedmann, 1960)[3]

      Modern industrial societies are viewed as clock-ridden. (Moore, 1963, str. 47)[4]

  1. INNOVATIVENESS

     Changes in manufacturing modes demanded greater synchronization of labor as well as a higher regularity in time routines. 

 

  1. MANAGEMENT

New labor habits were formed accompanied by the organic division of labor  (Durkheim, The Division of Labor inn Society , 1997)[5].

Contracts were long-term, reflecting the times of acute shortages of labor. The confirmation of discipline, like one of the fields of management itself, was not respected a fit subject for study, still less a science, but „merely a matter of the employer's individual character and ability" (Pollard, 1963, str. 271)[6]; No books were written factory discipline as one of the parts of management before 1830.

Managers were required to build a large and diversified industrial labor force, which involves four interlinked processes: recruitment, commitment, upgrading, and security. „Industrial man is a product not of a particular climate or ancestry but rather of persistent effort and investment" (Kerr, Harbison, Dunlop, & Myers, 1960, str. 10)[7]. Relationships are personalized due to the need to organize the network structure of working processes. Participative management style contributes to the culture of innovation, and readiness to take risks.

The structure which fosters creativity is flexible, cooperation-based, while management is participative; support mechanisms are rewards to those who are creative; communication is open, it is allowed to make mistakes if they ”birth” ideas.

  1. LEADERSHIP

       Network is managed. Social structure is „integrated." Uncertainty is avoided by establishing standards and forms within organizational processes, thereby making the results predictable.

In cultures which are characterized by uncertainty avoidance, dominant rules are short-term and medium-term, while planning is left to the top management. Contrary to that, the idea of the strategic plan is more present in cultures with lower uncertainty avoidance.

[1] Franklin, B.(1736) Necessary Hints to Those that Would be Rich;

 http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/franklin-the-works-of-benjamin-franklin-vol-ii-letters-and-misc-writings-1735-1753

[2] Gacev, G. (2011) Mentaliteti naroda sveta, Logos, Beograd; pg. 261

[3] Friedmann, G. (1960) Leisure and Technological Civilization; Int.Soc.Science Jour., XII; pp. 509-521

[4] Moore, W.E.; (1963) Man, Time and Society; John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b4365963;view=1up;seq=7

(Moore, 1963)

[5] Durkheim, E. (1997) The Division of Labor in Society. Trans. W. D. Halls,  New York: Free Press,

https://books.google.rs/books/about/The_Division_of_Labor_in_Society.html?id=B955X3C-9E8C&redir_esc=y

[6] Pollard, S. ( 1963) Factory Discipline in the Industrial Revolution; The Economic History Review; Vol. 16; No. 2; No pp. 254-271; http://www.surplusvalue.org.au/Misc%20Articles%20and%20Poems/discipline.pdf

[7] Kerr, C., Harbison, F.H.; Dunlop, J.T., Myers, C.A. (1960) Industrialism and Industrial Man; Studies in Labor and Industrialization; International Labor Review Vol. LXXXII; No. 3; http://diglib.princeton.edu/images/deliverable/MC231/c0318.pdf