Resource scarcity; „zero-email environment"; „we are producing data on a massive scale that is fast polluting our working environments"[1]; knowledge services; talents more than capital will represent the critical factor of production[2] (Schwab, 2016)


Open system planning, reverse brain drain; aging population, rise of a new global middle class (in Asia), decline of the established middle class in high-income economies,


 Basic shift in orientation from goods-producing to services-rendering and information processing; gig work, crowd work, on-demand labor; knowledge services; „bricks and clicks" – „Nearly 19 percent of global B2C retail will happen online"[3]; digital platform economy is fast emerging, digital platforms will lead to more „non-standard" jobs and contributed to the emergence of the so-called „gig economy"[4]


Online labor markets; flat world, unlimited „virtual labor migration", workers expressed resistance against digitally-mediated labor markets


Complex industries need networks whereas routine sectors need hierarchy; connected living;  More than 30% of the global population uses social media platforms to connect, work and learn – it is expected that those type of interactions would provide an opportunity for cross-cultural understanding (Schwab, 2016) 


Increased need for planning and control of technology and its growth, big data analytics (social sentiment analysis, open innovation platforms, micro personalized medicines, and marketing); cognitive era and cognitive technologies; Business R&D innovation is increasingly global, new concepts of change such as social innovation;, inclusive innovation; frugal innovation; leading to a more inclusive approach to innovation; Do-it-yourself researchers agenda has emerged between science groups and maker communities


Rise in influence of professional and technical occupations; growing importance of Organizational Behaviour; leaders and managers should be able to understand their changing working environment and continuously innovate


Changing cultural norms, contingent leadership styles;



Globalisation is transforming how societies organize production. The changes concern the paradigms of development in specific research disciplines, but also include management practices. Due to its dromological nature, power belongs to those with a developed sensitivity to recognize directions and dynamics of changes in the production. 

When it comes to parameters used to monitor, forecast growth and development, and create conditions for development, we should point out to shift from quantitative to qualitative measures. (Stiglitz, Sen, & Fitoussi, 2009)[5] Metric is ex-post oriented, not able to indicate early signs to intervene in time. Metric is not directed towards sustainable growth, i.e., does not measure development or other types of assets, equity and changes in their structure, dynamics and growth (such as health, education, social cohesion, trust, human capital, etc.).  Metrics are only a reflection of the dominant value system of society. "Sometimes we measure inputs, instead of outputs. Other times we can perceive outputs, but we are not sure how to evaluate them". In the public sector, an output is measured by observing input. In medicine, the health system could hardly be considered successful if there are more open-heart surgeries. (Cutler, 2005)[6] 

  • Capital markets are global, the market for goods and services are regional, and labor markets are still predominantly national, and thereby yet primarily determined by the cultural dimensions of the countries in which all labor market participants socialized. Accordingly, the dynamic analysis of the current corporate competitive environment, regarding globalization, would be carried out concerning the dynamics of mobility of the mentioned factors of production.

It is paradoxical that in the world of globalized production factors (capital, technology, labor) their sensitivity is emphasized more than the quality of the chosen social context. In fact, as the factor of production becomes more mobile (such as technology), it also becomes more sensitive to the characteristics of the local environment. 

  • Entering the post-social world is possible only with the recognition of the specificities of several cultures: small countries, located at the crossroads of economic and cultural flows, often feel the need to understand the surrounding nations, and thus more capable of pre-recognition of others.
  • Organisation: Companies have become "lean," "light," "fat-free," and have been reduced to three or five hierarchical levels, with teams that are small and multidisciplinary as well as multicultural.
  •  The question of uncertainty.  The economy is increasingly separated from the experts who are safer on the market than in the company, not interested in the success of the business, who protect their careers more than their jobs, which they can easily find in emigration whenever the opportunity arises.   
  • The chaged nature of technological development: researchers rightfully write that in the 21st century the geocultural paradigm will replace the geopolitical and geoeconomic one.(Touraine, 2007)[7] A nation with the most developed intellectual and cultural capital will have the prerequisites for creating a "policy of the future." The innovation-based paradigm influences and changes the economy as well as the "nominal rates of companies in the economy." In fact, at the beginning of the last century, the lifespan of the company was 60 years, whereas currently, it is only 20 years. These figures are an indicator of the health of an economy. Hence, the average lifespan of companies in Japan and Europe is 12.5 years. Within the new paradigm, topics should primarily be aimed, among other things, at measuring the effects of the lack of innovation. These facts do not lead to stagnation, but to sink.

[2] Schwab, C. (2016) The Fourth Industrial Revolution: what it means, how to respond; WEF


[4] OECD (2016) Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016;

[5]Stiglitz, J.E., Sen, A., Fitoussi, J. (2009) Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress;

[6]Cutler, D. Your Money or Your Life, Strong Medicine for America's Health Care System, Oxford University Press, 2005

[7] Touraine, A. (2007) A New Paradigm for Understanding Today's World, Polity Press, Cambridge;