How to know which part of the culture will make your business competitive?

Authors have long tried to determine one single meaning of culture since knowledge of specific cultural dimensions does not speak much of the culture itself. No single definition of culture exists. Some definitions are often used, not only in academic fields but also in consulting businesses. One of the most frequently used definitions of organizational culture was suggested by Edgar Schein (Schein, 1992)[1]: “A pattern of basic assumptions-invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. Schein’s definition of culture differs from the previously set definitions for dividing culture into different levels of    culture: the most prominent level of a culture is composed of behavioral patterns; the next level contains the values, while the deepest and invisible cultural level is made up of basic assumptions about human nature.

Different levels of culture

Taken and adapted from Edgar H. Schein (1984); Coming to a New Awareness of Organizational Culture; Sloan Management Review; 25 (2), pg. 3[2]

The definition of culture acceptable to most authors was determined in 2004 within the framework of the GLOBE project (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004). The culture was described as phenomenon represented by: “shared motives, values, beliefs, identities, and interpretations or meanings of significant events that result from common experiences of members of collectives that are transmitted across generations.”[3]

All theories of culture arising over the years can be divided by their orientation to the mentioned levels.

The norms indicate the things we should do, whereas the values serve as a criterion of choice between the given alternatives, depending on the desired conditions. Norms are easy to identify but difficult to interpret without analyzing the values.

Most cultural theories are oriented to the medium-range cultural level - values (Hofstede, 1980[4]; Inglehart and Baker, 2000[5]; Ronen and Shenkar[6], 1986; Schwartz, 1992[7]). Values, according to their definitions suggested by various authors, indicate the “desired conditions” (Kluckhohn, 1951)[8], beliefs (Schwartz, 1992)[9], standards (Kohn and Scholler, 1983)[10], tendencies (Hofstede, 2001), or principles (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, 1961)[11]. Moreover, authors agree that the values should not be spoken of only at individual levels, but also at the level of collectives (Hofstede, 2001, Kluckhohn, 1951, Rokeach, 1973[12], Schwartz, 1992[13], 1994[14]).

Several cultural theories deal with the visible external level of a culture - behavioural patterns (House et al., 1999; Smith, Peterson and Schwartz, 2002,[15] Trompenars, 1994[16]), while only a few researchers examine the deepest and invisible cultural level composed of the fundamental values (Leung, Bond, Reimel de Carrasquel, Munoz, Hernandez, Murakami, Yamaguchi, Bierbrauer and Sinegilis; 2002)[17].

The difference between explicit and implicit culture is a typical phenomenon. During the increase in individualistic utilitarian values, brought by the post-traditional industry (the syndrome of egalitarianism is characteristic of a traditional sector), what occurs is that the individual remains egalitarian at the social level, oppressing the fact that others could have a better living standard, but accepts social differences at the individual level. Naturally, as the accumulation of wealth is institutionally prohibited in socialism, these individuals will discover the "invisible," outer institutional options, in the form of unique appendages, medical treatment and relaxation places, to improve their position.

The visible and invisible components that create culture

[1] Schein, Edgar (1992) Organizational Culture and Leadership; Jossey Boss, San Francisco, pg. 12, https://www.amazon.com/Organizational-Leadership-Jossey-Bass-Business-Management/dp/1119212049/ref=dp_ob_image_bk
[2] Schein Edgar (1984) Coming to a New Awareness of Organizational Culture; Sloan Management Review, 25:2, pg. 3, http://www.sietmanagement.fr/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/culture_schein.pdf

[3] House at all. (2004); Culture, Leadership, and Organizations; The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies; Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, pg. 15,  https://www.amazon.co.uk/Culture-Leadership-Organizations-GLOBE-Societies/dp/0761924019

[4] Hofstede, G. (2001), Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations, 2nd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA., https://www.amazon.com/Culture%E2%80%B2s-Consequences-Comparing-Institutions-Organizations/dp/0803973241

[5] Inglehart, R.; Baker, W, E.; (2000); Modernization, Cultural Change and the Persistence of Traditional Values; American Sociological Review Vol.  65,  http://www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/savvy/images/members/docs/pdf/special/asr/ASR_65_1_Article_1_Inglehart_Baker.pdf

[6]Ronen, S., Shenkar, O., (2000) Clustering Countries on Attitudinal Dimensions: A Review an Synthesis; doi: 10.5465/AMR.1985.4278955 ACAD MANAGE REV July 1, 1985, vol. 10;  no. 3; pp.  435-454,  http://amr.aom.org/content/10/3/435.abstract

[7] Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116

[8] Kluckhohn, C. (1951) Values and Value-Orientations in the Theory of Action: An Exploration in Definition and Classification. In: Parsons, T. and Shils, E., Eds., Toward a General Theory of Action, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 388-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674863507.c8

[9] Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116

[10]Kohn, M., & Schooler, C. (1983). Work and personality: An inquiry into the impact of social stratification. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, https://lib.ugent.be/en/catalog/rug01:000205911

[11] Kluckhohn, F. R. & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.

[12] Rokeach, M.(1973); The Nature of Human Values, Values List of Milton Rokeach, http://mio-ecsde.org/protarea/Annex_4_3_values_lists.pdf

[13] Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1-65). New York: Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6

[14] Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects of the content and structure of values? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.x.

[15] Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F.; Schwartz, S.H. (2002) Cultural Values, Sources of Guidance, and their Relevance to Managerial Behavior; Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022022102033002005

[16] Trompenars, A. (1994) Reading the waves of culture: understanding diversity in global business; Irwin Professional Pub.

https://books.google.rs/books/about/Riding_the_waves_of_culture.html?id=vPkOAQAAMAAJ&redir_esc=y

[17] Leung, K., at all (2002) The Search for Universal Dimensions of General Beliefs about How the World Functions; Volume: 33 issue: 3, page(s): 286-302, Issue published: May 1, 2002, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0022022102033003005
alterations to organizational climate than the culture.

Definitions of culture

1871 Edward Burnett Tylor “Culture…is that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by a human as a member of a society”[18] (Taylor, 1871, str. 160) Edward B. T. (1871) Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom; John Murray, Albermarle Street, London, pg. 160
http://www.tbm100.org/Lib/Tyl20PC2.pdf
1945 Ralph Linton "Culture is a configuration of learned behaviors and results of behavior whose component elements are shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society”[19] (Linton, 1945, str. 32) Linton, R. (1945) The cultural background of personality, New York, London, D.Appelton-Century company, pg. 32
https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/6472904?selectedversion=NBD711601
1951 Eliot Jaques "The culture of the factory is its customary and traditional way of thinking and doing of things, which is shared to a greater or lesser degree by all its members, and which new members must learn, and at least partially accept, to be accepted into service in the firm." [20] (Jaques, 1961, str. 251)Jaques, E. (1951) The changing culture of a factory, Psychology Press, pg. 251
https://books.google.rs/books/about/The_Changing_Culture_of_a_Factory.html?id=aSGEEq3jbckC&redir_esc=y
1952 Alfred Louis Kroeber, Clyde Kluckhohn "Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e., historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other, as conditional elements of future action."[21] (Kroeber & Klcuckhohn, 1983, str. 48, 51, )Kroeber, A.L., Kluckhohn, C. (1952) Culture: a critical review of concepts and definitions, Cambridge, Mass, The Museum, 1952; pg. 357, pg. 48, 51
http://www.worldcat.org/title/culture-a-critical-review-of-concepts-and-definitions/oclc/427298
1961 K. William Kapp „As a conceptual framework, culture serves as the explanatory tool for the study and comprehension of the typical and distinct pattern of behavior and the socially agreed prescriptions for and prohibitions of particular
an action of a given society."[22] (Kapp, 1961, str. 169)
Kapp, W. (1961) Towards a Science of Man in Society: A Positive Approach to the integration of Social Knowledge, Nijhoff, pg. 160
http://www.kwilliam-kapp.de/documents/TaSMiS_001.pdf, pg. 169
1973 Clifford Geertz „We live, as one writer has neatly put it, in an "information gap." Between what our body tells us and what we have to know to function, there is a vacuum we must fill ourselves, and we fill it with information (or misinformation) provided by our culture."[23] (Geertz, 1973, str. 50)Geertz, C. (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures, Selected Essays, Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, pg. 50
https://monoskop.org/images/5/54/Geertz_Clifford_The_Interpretation_of_Cultures_Selected_Essays.pdf
1979 Andrew M. Pettigrew "Culture is a system of publicly and collectively accepted meanings operating for a given group at a given time. The systems of terms, forms, categories, and images interpret people's situation to themselves." [24] (Pettigrew, 1979, str. 574)Pettigrew, A.M. (1979) On Studying Organizational Cultures, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 4 Qualitative Methodology, pp. 570-581, pg. 574
http://mail.tku.edu.tw/myday/teaching/992/SMS/S/992SMS_T1_Paper_20110326_On_Studying_Organizational_Cultures.pdf
1982 Thomas J. Peters, Robert H. Waterman "Distinctive culture is swelled, but is not it a luxury? Does not the business has to be fiscally sound? …The excellent companies are among the most fiscally sound of all. But their value set integrates the notions of economic health, serving customers, and making meaning down the line. As one executive said to us: "Profit is like health. You need it, and the more, the better. But, it is not why you exist."[25] (Petters & Waterman, 2004, str. 103)Petters, T.J., Waterman, R.H. (2004) In Search of Excellence; Lessons from American Best-Run Companies; Collins Business Essentials, pg. 103
https://www.amazon.com/Search-Excellence-Americas-Best-Run-Companies/dp/0060548789
1982 Terence Deal, Allan Kennedy "Companies that have cultivated their identities by shaping values, making heroes, spelling out rites and rituals', and acknowledging the cultural network have an edge. These corporations have values and beliefs to pass along – not just products. They have stories to tell – not just profits to make. They have heroes whom managers and workers can emulate – not just faceless bureaucrats. In short, they are a human institution that provides practical meaning for people, both on and off the job."[26] (Deal & Kennedy, 1982, str. 15)Deal T., Kennedy, A. (2000) Corporate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Basic Books, New York, pg. 17
https://www.amazon.com/Corporate-Cultures-Rites-Rituals-Life/dp/0738203300
1990 Edward T. Hall, Mildred R. Hall “Culture is communication. It is possible to say that the world of communication can be divided into three parts: words, material things, and behavior. Words are the medium of business, politics, and diplomacy. Material things are usually indicators of status and power. Behavior provides feedback on how other people feel and includes techniques for avoiding confrontation.”[27] (Hal & Hall, 1990, str. 3) Hall, E.T., Hall, M.R. (1990) Understanding Cultural Differences; Germans, French, and Americans, Intercultural Press Boston, pg. 3;
https://www.amazon.com/Understanding-Cultural-Differences-Germans-Americans/dp/1877864072
1990 Daniel Denison “Effectiveness is a function of translating the core values and beliefs into policies and practices in a consistent manner. Building a “strong culture” implies that values and actions are highly consistent. This form of consistency often has been mentioned as a source of organizational strength and as a way of improving performance (expressed in the ROA, ROA, sales and market shares).”[28] (Denison, 1997, p. 6) Denison, D.R. (1997) Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness; John Willey and Sons, New York, pg. 27
https://www.amazon.com/Corporate-Culture-Organizational-Effectiveness-Denison/dp/0965861201
1992 Gert Hofstede “If national cultures describe the collective mental programming of otherwise similar persons from different nations, organizational cultures should describe the collective mental programming of otherwise similar persons from different organizations.”[29] (Hofstede G. , Culture s Consequences, 2001, p. 71) Hofstede, G. (2000) Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations, 2nd Edition; SAGE Publication, London, pg. 71
https://www.amazon.com/Culture-x2032-Consequences-Institutions-Organizations/dp/0803973241/ref=dp_ob_image_bk
1992 John Kotter, Heskett James “Corporate culture can have a significant impact on a firm's long-term economic performance. Firms with cultures that emphasized the key managerial constituencies (customers, stockholders, and employees) and leadership from managers at all levels outperformed firms that did not have those cultural traits by a huge margin."[30] (Kotter & Heskett, 1982, str. 11) Kotter, J.P.; Heskett, J. L. (1992) Corporate Culture and Performance; The Free Press, New York, pg. 11
https://www.amazon.com/Corporate-Culture-Performance-John-Kotter/dp/1451655320
1998 Fons Trompenars, Hampden-Turner “Organizational culture or functional culture is nothing more than the way in which groups have organized themselves over the years to solve the problems and challenges presented to them. Changes in a culture happen because people realize that certain old ways of doing things do not work anymore. It is not difficult to change the culture when people are aware that the survival of the community is at stake, where survival is considered desirable."[31] (Trompenars & Hampden-Turner, 1998, str. 23) Trompenars, F.; Hampden-Turner, C.; Ridding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Busines; 2nd Editon, McGraw-Hill, New York, pg. 7, 27,  23
https://www.amazon.com/Riding-Waves-Culture-Understanding-Diversity/dp/0071773088
2004 Robert House “For Project GLOBE, culture is defined as shared motives, values, beliefs, identities, and interpretations of meanings of significant events that result from common experiences of members of collectives that are transmitted across generations.[32] (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004, str. 15) House, R.J., Hanges, P.J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.W., Gupta, V., (2004) Culture, Leadership and Organizations; The GLOBE study of 62 societies, SAGE Publication; pg. 15, 57
https://www.amazon.com/Riding-Waves-Culture-Understanding-Diversity/dp/0071773088
2010 Edgar Henry Schein “The culture of a group can now be defined as a pattern of a shared basic assumptions learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, which has worked well enough to be considered valid, and, therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and fell in relation to those problems.”[33] (Schein, 1992, str. 18) Shein, E. (2010) Organizational Culture and Leadership; Fourth Edition; Jossey-Bass, A Will Imprint, pg. 17
http://www.untag-smd.ac.id/files/Perpustakaan_Digital_2/ORGANIZATIONAL%20CULTURE%20Organizational%20Culture%20and%20Leadership,%203rd%20Edition.pdf

Finally, it is necessary to make a distinction between the terms organizational climate and organizational culture, as they are frequently mixed up. The term “organizational climate” is used for short-term descriptions, whereas “organizational culture” is used to describe the long-term characteristics. Climate is, therefore, a tactical question, while culture is a strategic one, which results in an ability to make more comfortable alterations to organizational climate than the culture.

 

[1] Schein, Edgar (1992) Organizational Culture and Leadership; Jossey Boss, San Francisco, pg. 12, https://www.amazon.com/Organizational-Leadership-Jossey-Bass-Business-Management/dp/1119212049/ref=dp_ob_image_bk
[2] Schein Edgar (1984) Coming to a New Awareness of Organizational Culture; Sloan Management Review, 25:2, pg. 3, http://www.sietmanagement.fr/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/culture_schein.pdf

[3] House at all. (2004); Culture, Leadership, and Organizations; The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies; Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, pg. 15,  https://www.amazon.co.uk/Culture-Leadership-Organizations-GLOBE-Societies/dp/0761924019

[4] Hofstede, G. (2001), Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations, 2nd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA., https://www.amazon.com/Culture%E2%80%B2s-Consequences-Comparing-Institutions-Organizations/dp/0803973241

[5] Inglehart, R.; Baker, W, E.; (2000); Modernization, Cultural Change and the Persistence of Traditional Values; American Sociological Review Vol.  65,  http://www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/savvy/images/members/docs/pdf/special/asr/ASR_65_1_Article_1_Inglehart_Baker.pdf

[6]Ronen, S., Shenkar, O., (2000) Clustering Countries on Attitudinal Dimensions: A Review an Synthesis; doi: 10.5465/AMR.1985.4278955 ACAD MANAGE REV July 1, 1985, vol. 10;  no. 3; pp.  435-454,  http://amr.aom.org/content/10/3/435.abstract

[7] Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116

[8] Kluckhohn, C. (1951) Values and Value-Orientations in the Theory of Action: An Exploration in Definition and Classification. In: Parsons, T. and Shils, E., Eds., Toward a General Theory of Action, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 388-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674863507.c8

[9] Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116

[10]Kohn, M., & Schooler, C. (1983). Work and personality: An inquiry into the impact of social stratification. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, https://lib.ugent.be/en/catalog/rug01:000205911

[11] Kluckhohn, F. R. & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.

[12] Rokeach, M.(1973); The Nature of Human Values, Values List of Milton Rokeach, http://mio-ecsde.org/protarea/Annex_4_3_values_lists.pdf

[13] Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1-65). New York: Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6

[14] Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects of the content and structure of values? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.x.

[15] Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F.; Schwartz, S.H. (2002) Cultural Values, Sources of Guidance, and their Relevance to Managerial Behavior; Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022022102033002005

[16] Trompenars, A. (1994) Reading the waves of culture: understanding diversity in global business; Irwin Professional Pub.

https://books.google.rs/books/about/Riding_the_waves_of_culture.html?id=vPkOAQAAMAAJ&redir_esc=y

[17] Leung, K., at all (2002) The Search for Universal Dimensions of General Beliefs about How the World Functions; Volume: 33 issue: 3, page(s): 286-302, Issue published: May 1, 2002, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0022022102033003005

[18] Edward B. T. (1871) Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom; John Murray, Albermarle Street, London, pg. 160, http://www.tbm100.org/Lib/Tyl20PC2.pdf

[19]   Linton, R. (1945) The cultural background of personality, New York, London, D.Appelton-Century company, pg. 32

https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/6472904?selectedversion=NBD711601

[20]  Jaques, E. (1951) The changing culture of a factory, Psychology Press, pg. 251

https://books.google.rs/books/about/The_Changing_Culture_of_a_Factory.html?id=aSGEEq3jbckC&redir_esc=y

[21] Kroeber, A.L., Kluckhohn, C. (1952) Culture: a critical review of concepts and definitions, Cambridge, Mass, The Museum, 1952; pg. 48, 51http://www.worldcat.org/title/culture-a-critical-review-of-concepts-and-definitions/oclc/427298

[22] Kapp, W. (1961) Towards a Science of Man in Society: A Positive Approach to the integration of Social Knowledge, Nijhoff, pg. 160

http://www.kwilliam-kapp.de/documents/TaSMiS_001.pdf, pg. 169

[23]  Geertz, C. (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures, Selected Essays, Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, pg. 50

https://monoskop.org/images/5/54/Geertz_Clifford_The_Interpretation_of_Cultures_Selected_Essays.pdf

[24]   Pettigrew, A.M. (1979) On Studying Organizational Cultures, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 4 Qualitative Methodology, pp. 570-581, pg. 574,

http://mail.tku.edu.tw/myday/teaching/992/SMS/S/992SMS_T1_Paper_20110326_On_Studying_Organizational_Cultures.pdf

[25] Petters, T.J., Waterman, R.H. (2004) In Search of Excellence; Lessons from American Best-Run Companies; Collins Business Essentials, pg. 103, https://www.amazon.com/Search-Excellence-Americas-Best-Run-Companies/dp/0060548789

[26]   Deal T., Kennedy, A. (2000) Corporate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Basic Books, New York, pg. 15

https://www.amazon.com/Corporate-Cultures-Rites-Rituals-Life/dp/0738203300

[27]   Hall, E.T., Hall, M.R. (1990) Understanding Cultural Differences; Germans, French, and Americans, Intercultural Press Boston, pg. 3;

https://www.amazon.com/Understanding-Cultural-Differences-Germans-Americans/dp/1877864072

[28]    Denison, D.R. (1997) Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness; John Willey and Sons, New York, pg. 6

https://www.amazon.com/Corporate-Culture-Organizational-Effectiveness-Denison/dp/0965861201

[29] Hofstede, G. (2001) Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations, 2nd edition; Sage Publications; London,    pg. 71

[30] Kotter, J.P.; Heskett, J. L. (1992) Corporate Culture and Performance; The Free Press, New York, pg. 11

https://www.amazon.com/Corporate-Culture-Performance-John-Kotter/dp/1451655320

[31] Trompenars, F.; Hampden-Turner, C.; Ridding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Busines; 2nd Editon, McGraw-Hill, New York, pg. 23, https://www.amazon.com/Riding-Waves-Culture-Understanding-Diversity/dp/0071773088

[32] House, R.J., Hanges, P.J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.W., Gupta, V., (2004) Culture, Leadership and Organizations; The GLOBE study of 62 societies, SAGE Publication; pg. 15, https://www.amazon.com/Riding-Waves-Culture-Understanding-Diversity/dp/0071773088

[33] Shein, E. (2010) Organizational Culture and Leadership; Fourth Edition; Jossey-Bass, A Will Imprint, pg. 17

http://www.untag-smd.ac.id/files/Perpustakaan_Digital_2/ORGANIZATIONAL%20CULTURE%20Organizational%20Culture%20and%20Leadership,%203rd%20Edition.pdf